Thursday, March 26, 2020
Dr Setka English 101 11/ 26 /16 History and Memory in Beloved' by Toni Morrison As a novel that was written after the American Civil War (1865), Beloved' centers on the power of history and memory. It recalls the incidents of American slaves, particularly the former African-American slaves in the novel. The author, Toni Morrison, is a renowned African-American scholar who specializes in black fiction. In the book, Morrison explains how the past is a dreadful memory that slaves willfully and desperately try to forget. However, for Sethe , the main character of the novel, slavery memories cannot be escaped. The past continuously haunts her, for instance, the spirit of her deceased daughter, Beloved, whom she had murdered, appears back to her. The author, Morrison, borrows the events in the novel from the real story of Margaret Garner. Just like Sethe , Garner escaped slavery and killed her child in order not to allow slave owners to own her child . Morrison chooses Sethe as a protagonist who resembles the black voices that have been historically denied the freedom of language. From the novel, there are a lot of lessons that can be derived, however, the most notable one comes from Sethe's experience that to progress, we must confront the ghosts' of our pasts. The notion that Morrison raises is that America must address the history of slavery to confront it; this manifests itself even today in ongoing racial discord and discrimination. In this light, the purpose of this paper is to discuss on history and memory as revealed in the Beloved.' The paper will consider some of the main examples as depicted by the characters such as in Sethe and Paul D's relationship. Even though the novel was written in 1987, the author intended it to be regarded within the historical context of African-American slavery. Sethe and her family were victimized as slaves back in 1855, and the novel was written as a response to the harsh Fugitive Slave laws that gave slave owners the power to go after their slaves in different states. A study of the novel reveals that Morrison had a growing concern for reconstructing the history of African-American slaves. The communal history of struggle is crucial because it defines the past and the present. The historical transitions can, for instance, be seen when Paul D recalls the events after the civil war when black people became homeless. "After the war, we saw Negroes hungry and stunned. It was a wonder. They had hidden in caves and fought owls for food..." (Morrison 78). As an act of historical recovery, Morrison writes the novel to get hold of the past by remembering the ancestors and collecting the painful memories of the past. Additionally, the ghost beloved' has a historical context in that it resembles the African-American woman whose stories were never told or shunned. Generations of women were hunted and stolen from Africa, and as such, the character Beloved is the haunting symbol of slavery. She represents the pain, anguish, and misery that African-American women have long suffered in history. Notably, in the novel, before Paul D reconciles with Sethe at the end, he realizes that Beloved reminds him of his past. While they get intimate, Paul D's mind is filled with the memories from the past that reminded him of his slavery experiences. Also, as seen at the end of the novel, a common phrase that Morrison uses is "this is not a story to pass on" (Morrison 324). By this, the author implies the need to move forward. She realizes that to tell the tales of slavery; one must recall the past then move forward. This is a message to the American audience to confront the memories and horrors that have befallen the black people through reconfiguring the past in the present ( Khatan 107). Memory has not also been exempted in this juncture. The main character, Sethe is haunted by her personal histories as well as the history of other people. For Morrison, the theme of memory and the past is significant. Forgetting the past would be like forgetting American slavery ever existed. Sethe suffers through beloved who is the physical manifestation of her memories.
Posted by Adolfo Jacobsen at 9:50 AM
Friday, March 6, 2020
Connotations of Secretary Connotations of Secretary Connotations of Secretary By Maeve Maddox Secretary is formed from secret. The noun suffix -ary comes from a Latin masculine form and means Ã¢â¬Å"belonging to or engaged in. The first Ã¢â¬Å"secretariesÃ¢â¬ were men who kept records and wrote letters for kings, i.e., they were people who could be trusted to keep secrets of state. Even today, although the word secretary in a business context lies on the trash heap of Ã¢â¬Å"political correctness,Ã¢â¬ it remains in honored use as the title of a highly placed government official, for example, Ã¢â¬Å"Secretary of StateÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Secretary of Defense.Ã¢â¬ At the beginning of the twentieth century, educational opportunities for women increased and the male fatalities of World War I opened new avenues to female employment. Ambitious young women, like the maid encouraged by Lady Sybil in the Downton Abbey series, aspired to the job of secretary as a means of escaping the drudgery and subservience of domestic employment. In previous decades, employment as a secretary had been a manÃ¢â¬â¢s job. As more and more women entered the occupation, the word secretary became feminized in the context of office work. Hollywood movies, novels, and television shows contributed to the various stereotypes that have grown up around the word: brainless young woman who files, takes telephone messages, and provides coffee for the men in the office. beautiful woman with large bosom ogled by boss and other men in the office beautiful/scheming woman looking to break up the bossÃ¢â¬â¢s marriage unattractive, highly efficient woman who conceals a decades-long love for the unsuspecting boss highly efficient elderly woman who lives only for her job I have never watched the television series Mad Men, but the Web abounds in articles about its presentation of the role of secretaries in the 1960s. These excerpts from an article in the New York Post (April 6, 2015) indicate that the writers for the series drew shamelessly on secretarial stereotypes: In six and a half seasons, Don has churned through nine secretaries, who were often the victim of their bossÃ¢â¬â¢ womanizing ways.Ã A switchboard operator in Season 1, Lois becomes DonÃ¢â¬â¢s secretary in Season 2 after PeggyÃ¢â¬â¢s promotion, but he fires her for being incompetent. The model-like Jane gets assigned to DonÃ¢â¬â¢s desk in Season 2 and it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t long before she starts an affair with Roger Sterling, who leaves his wife to marry her.Ã A Sterling Cooper employee since Season 1, Allison started as a receptionist and became DonÃ¢â¬â¢s secretary in Season 3. When a drunken Don forgets his keys after a Christmas party, she delivers them to his apartment and the two sleep together.Ã After Allison resigns, Joan assigns Bert CooperÃ¢â¬â¢s elderly secretary to DonÃ¢â¬â¢s desk, knowing sheÃ¢â¬â¢s the one secretary he wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have an affair with (though it was revealed that in her younger years, Roger did just that). Blunt and cantankerous, Ida provided some comic relief before dying suddenly at her desk.Ã The French-Canadian Megan was promoted from the typing pool to DonÃ¢â¬â¢s secretary after Miss BlankenshipÃ¢â¬â¢s death and quickly leads her boss back into his womanizing ways. On a trip to California in the season finale, Don proposes on a whim and the two later marry.Ã An image search for Ã¢â¬Å"secretaries cartoonsÃ¢â¬ brings up screeds of drawings of varying degrees of offensiveness that perpetuate the stereotypes. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not surprising that the organization founded in 1942 as Ã¢â¬Å"The National Secretaries AssociationÃ¢â¬ - after several intervening name changes- has settled on this one: Ã¢â¬Å"The International Association of Administrative Professionals.Ã¢â¬ The widespread change from calling the employees formerly known as Ã¢â¬Å"secretariesÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"administrative assistantsÃ¢â¬ is justified by the argument that running an office is more complicated than it was in the past. But, isnÃ¢â¬â¢t everything? We still call teachers teachers and doctors doctors. Words other than secretary exist or could be coined for office jobs that do not entail as much work and expertise as that of secretary: receptionist, filing clerk, mail clerk, errand-runner, coffee-maker. I predict that if the occupation of Ã¢â¬Å"administrative assistantÃ¢â¬ turns out to employ mostly women, the term will take on the same sexist overtones as secretary. Euphemisms tend to take on the connotations they are invented to dispel. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Try to vs. Try andAppropriate vs. Apropos vs. Apt
Posted by Adolfo Jacobsen at 5:25 PM