Monday, January 27, 2020

Ethical Situation in Healthcare

Ethical Situation in Healthcare Azmir Bin Abdul Latiff ENQUIRY 3 Discuss the situation described from the perspective of the health and human services professional. What would be the most appropriate response to the situation? Include in your answer the: ethical frameworks, theories and principles appropriate to responding to the scenario relevant professional codes of ethics and codes of practice relevant legislation and guidelines, statute and common law, government guidelines. cultural and community values related to the issue, and comment on what would be appropriate and inappropriate responses of the health professional to the situation. Case Study Three Dr Simons was the new Surgical Consultant at a large public hospital. He was trained in the USA, and came with a reputation for being very fierce. Dr Simons regularly yelled at other staff, in particular Nurses, if his requests were not immediately met. He justified that if â€Å"Chefs could yell at staff in a kitchen, where nobody’s life is at stake, he could yell at incompetence when it is a life and death situation†. Although the Nursing staff disliked Dr Simons, they continued to work with him as they felt intimidated. One nurse, Clare, worked in Recovery where she looked after patients directly after they had surgery. She noticed that a very large proportion of Dr Simons’ patients were in considerable pain after surgery, and several patients had adverse outcomes such as heavy bleeding from the surgical site. Clare was concerned about this, but was scared to report it for fear of reprisal from Dr Simons. Eventually she was so worried about the patients’ health she made an official complaint to the Hospital management. She was called in to the Director of Nursing and told that if she ever made trouble like that again, a reason would be found to not continue her employment. She was told that Dr Simons was a senior staff member, and she had no right to make complaints about his medical conduct as she was â€Å"only a Nurse†. What should Clare’s response be? As healthcare professionals, Nurse Clare and Doctor Simons are bound by or influenced by professional codes of practice and ethics, Hippocraticoaths, statutes and laws and government guidelines. Clare was being responsible and professional by reporting and making an official complaint to the hospital management as she was concerned for the health and well being of her patients. It is her responsibility to report any suspicions of malpractice or substandard care to the higher authority if the senior staff members do not investigate and take actions to mitigate the suspicions. Considering that most of Doctor Simon’s patients were in a lot of pain and were exhibiting signs of heavy bleeding at the surgical site, Clare did raised her concerns to the hospital management and may have had exposed him to medical malpractice in the process. Instead of investigating the issue, the hospital management threatened to discontinue her employment. The fact that Doctor Simon is protected by the senior staff members despite his incompetence and medical malpractice is disturbing. Health professionals have codes of practice and guidelines to abide by. The National law requires Clare to report to a government body, AHPRA , if registered health practitioner knows of another practitioner’s destructive actions. AHPRA is a government body that focuses on serious cases of substandard practice or conduct by practitioners, or serious cases of impairment. This is to safeguard patients and to reduce or prevent the risk of potential harm from a result of medical malpract ice, negligence or impairment. A mandatory notification requirement helps to prevent the public from being placed at risk of harm. This shows that Clare have the right to report Doctor Simon’s attitude and actions to AHPRA if the senior staff members do not take action against Doctor Simon after the reported incidents as Doctor Simon have behaved in a way that poses a serious risk to the public. Ethics refers to standards of behaviors which are the best possible act in the many situations and issues that are raised as concerns. Ethics are not based on science, law, religion, accepted social norm, or feelings. It is viewed as approaches or processes such as, the utilitarian approach, an approach that is the one that provides the most good or does the least harm. The Utilitarian Approach deals with penalty; it tries both to increase the good done and to reduce the harm done. The Rights Approach is the one that best protects and respects the moral rights of those affected. This approach starts from the belief that humans have a dignity based on their human nature and their ability to choose freely what they do with their lives. TheJustice Approach, the idea that all people should be treated equally and fairly. Each of the approaches helps us determine what standards of behavior can be considered ethical. As there are still problems with the mentioned approaches, not all healthc are professionals agree to the specific approaches or the same set of human and civil rights. An ethical framework based on the approaches is to first recognize the ethical issue. After that, the healthcare professional must gather all the facts pertaining to the issue. He/she then must learn more about the situation and lay down the options available before acting on it. Subsequently, the next step would be to evaluate alternative approaches like the Utilitarian approach, Rights approach or Justice approach that best fits the situation. After considering the suitable approach needed to tackle the situation, he/she must act on the decided options. The end result must be reflected and evaluated if need be for further improvements. As a healthcare professional, Doctor Simon is to abide by the Ethics that is in the best interest of his patients. This means that he must provide the best healthcare and at the same time, reduce the amount of harm done on his patients. In Clare’s perspective, she viewed Doctor Simon’s actions as most harmful to the patients as he had caused a lot of pain and bleeding to his patients’ surgical site. As he did not abide by the Ethics in Clare’s viewpoint, she has the right to report him to the higher authority to protect the patients. The practice of Doctor Simon who caused pain and heavy bleedings to his patients was accepted by his peers may be due to the ‘Bolam’ test where traditionally, doctors were not said to have breached their duty of care if they acted in accordance with a practice accepted by their peers: Bolam v Friern Hospital Management Committee (1957). As their peers were the ones who set the standard, substandard care and malpractice were more prominent during those times as long as the practice conducted is accepted by the rest. However, this soon changed because of an incident whereby a patient was left almost blind when the doctor had failed in informing her on the risk of sympathetic ophthalmia. In this case, there were two opposing sides in which one would inform the patient and another would not inform. Due to this, the law was changed and the standard was set not by peers but by the court instead. Based on the Professional code of Ethics and Conduct, Ethical Frameworks, Theories and Principles, and Law and Guidelines, Clare should report to AHPRA if the higher authorities did not take any actions against Doctor Simon. By reporting to AHPRA also on the culture of the higher authority in her hospital, Clare would be able to break the inappropriate culture that is similar to ‘Bolam’ test. By doing so, Clare would be able to help stop the substandard practices and minimize the potential harm on the patients while maximizing the healthcare system to its optimum capabilities. This way, the patients would be able to receive better care with a methodological and ethical approach. References Dhai, A. (2008). Understanding professionalism in health care in the twenty first century.SADJ, 63, 174, 176-7 Faunce, T., Shat, K., Adams, C. (2008). Health the law. : Hot topics (Sydney, N.S.W.); no. 64. Retrieved on 30/5/2014 from: M.Velasquez, D. Moberg, M. J. Meyer, T. Shanks, M. R. McLean, D. DeCosse, Claire Andre and Kirk O. Hanson. A Framework for Thinking Ethically (May 2009) retrieved from:

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Disparities in Healthcare

Discrimination is a very large factor of there being a gap between the two groups and his study is important because practitioners need to recognize the problems that it creates. Ethnic minorities are discriminated against for many reasons such as poor socioeconomics status, poor neighborhood environments, and Just poor health choices. These can lead to practitioners' discrimination of ethnic minorities. â€Å"Overall, racial/ethnic minorities receive poorer quality health care than do Whites in the United Fiske, 2012).My hypothesis Is that ethnic minorities are discriminated in a way that they receive worse healthcare than Caucasians. The sign of this study is a sample design and not an experimental design because I pulled Information that Involved the entire United States. An experimental design Is the design of any information gathering where variation is present. Variance Is a measure of how far the set of numbers in a study is spread out. For this purpose, and the overall lower cost and efficiency, this study would overall incur a lower cost and data can be collected much faster than an experimental design.To prove that ethnic minorities are discriminated against more than Caucasians, I will pull much of y data from different studies that all come to the same conclusion. This study will Include a large sample size, the united States, so there Is a lot of equipment that needs to be provided for the research to be conducted. This Is a sampling design study that will use a lot of different equipment. Equipment such as computers, pads, calculators, notebooks, and software for computers are essential because they will aid the researchers immensely.If researchers are to stay in one place over a long period of time, storage may also be needed to store Items in. Besides equipment, money will also be needed for the purpose of travel. Locations where researchers can gather will be needed, along with transportation needs. Transportation needs can include plane trave l, vehicle rental, and reimbursement of gas. Living expenses such as food and hotel or motel would also be covered. Because this study looks at other resources of information to come to a final conclusion, medical examination of patients is not needed and therefore medical equipment Is exempt.This study Is considered a retrospective, or case controlled, study because It gathered through examination of records, interviews, and so on. A case controlled duty is defined as a type of retrospective, epidemiological, clinical study design. It involves two or more different groups with different outcomes. These groups are observed in the medical field usually to determine the outcome of a specific condition or disease. The two groups that are being looked at in this study are Caucasians and ethnic minorities. There are many techniques and procedures that come into play for this study.I used the process of data mining. Data mining is the process of analyzing data from different perspectives and summarizing it into useful information. Data mining is the most useful technique in acquiring the data we need for this certain study and will overall increase the efficiency of gathering data. Pulling from credible sources in research papers and gathering from many different polls will overall be very helpful for the study. Gathering The ethnic minority population is slowly gaining on the Caucasian population.These populations are more spread out in the United States. According to the 2011 U. S. Census, the ethnic populations are as such: Hispanics, 52 million; African Americans, 43. 9 million; Asian Americans, 10 million; American Indians, 2. Million. These numbers increase every year and the percent of Caucasians living in the United States starts to even out compared with minorities. In 2000, the white population made up approximately 70 percent of the total population(CDC, 2000), but now only make up 63. 4 percent.The gap that divides the unique group of ethnic minorities a nd Caucasians has many factors There are many factors to consider when looking at the gap between Caucasian and minorities. There is a â€Å"disproportionate prevalence on less health lifestyles, low socioeconomic status, resource-poor neighborhood environments, and poorer access o care†(Shavers, et al. , 2012) for ethnic minorities. These factors lead to far more cases of cancer, obesity, heart disease, diabetes, and chronic diseases in general. Minorities are discriminated because of these factors and it can impact their healthcare.Racial discrimination is defined as discriminatory or abusive behavior towards members of another race. Healthcare practitioners who discriminate create unneeded stress among patients and create unhealthy environments. This awful treatment of patients can spill into other aspects of the patient's life, and can lead to ore individuals smoking due to the psychological distress associated with such treatment(Purcell, et al. , 2012). To put discrimin ation in perspective, nearly two- thirds of one study â€Å"perceived discrimination in their interactions with health care providers based on race†¦ ND 58. 9% based on their socioeconomic status†(N. A. , 2001). Minorities who are discriminated against may not obtain the proper healthcare that they deserve and according to Dovish and Fiske, bias among healthcare providers exerts independent influence(2012). My hypothesis was that ethnic minorities are discriminated in a way that they chive worse healthcare than Caucasians. After pulling from many studies, the hypothesis seems to be validated, and that ethnic minorities are affected through discrimination in many different ways.Socioeconomic, health choices, and poor living conditions are only a few of the factors that make healthcare professionals discriminate against minorities. There is a certain design that was needed to guide information that involved the entire United States. This study would incur a lower cost and data can be collected much faster than an experimental design. Many efferent tools and equipment would be needed, such as computers, software, and pads, to name a few. After concluding on the hypothesis, there needs to be a call for something to be done.With 52 million Hispanics, 44 million African Americans, 10 million Asian Americans, and 3 million American Indians, discrimination can lead to many problems. Stress occurs in many individuals as a result from healthcare professionals discriminating against their patients. This unneeded stress puts the body through more harm and can cause a patient to experience more problems. With healthcare being a hot topic for discussion in today's society, it's difficult to see the affects that discrimination has on the healthcare industry.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Normalization: Pedagogy and James Paulik Montessori

Paulina V Edmunds James Paulik Montessori Philosophy and Pedagogy 27 January 2013 NORMALIZATION The children, who benefit enormously from the Montessori legacy, enjoy what Maria Montessori called â€Å"a Cosmic Education†. These children transform by the order, harmony and tranquility they experience every minute in this Montessori environment. They begin to transform, and this natural transformation was called by Dr. Montessori: â€Å"Normalization†, â€Å"It is the mental state children reach when they approach their studies with enthusiasm, work with little direction, treat others in a respectful way, and can work quietly on their own or with others. (Montessori, 148) When Dr. Montessori began her work in San Lorenzo, Rome, she questioned herself if the accomplishments of the children were â€Å"the work of angels†; but after 40 years of hard work and observation she came to the realization that â€Å"normalization is the single most important result of our work† (The Absorbent Mind, 204) She borrowed the term from the Anthropology, and it means becoming a contributing member of society and used it to distinguish the process that occurs when the development is happening in a normal way.Even young 3 year olds can experience and desire concentrated work, which leads them to contentment, restfulness and calm. They start being responsible for their environment and care for the other members in their community. This transformation appears through the repetition of this cycle: 1. Prepare to perform an activity: get holds of all the materials, movement involved and thought put into it. 2. The activity in which the child reaches total concentration. . Rest, a feeling of totality, satisfaction and being happiness. In Montessori schools, educators recognize this progression as being the normal work cycle. A perceptive educator can recognize a child who is normalized by these characteristics: love of work, concentration, self-discipline and sociability. . It is said that the adults work hard to change the child’s environment, but it is the child himself who uses the environment to change.Works Cited Montessori, Maria. The Secret of Childhood. City: Ballantine Books, 1966. Page 148. Polk Lillard, Paula. Montessori Today. City: Schocken Books, 1996. Pages 41-43. Shaefer Zener, Rita Dr. â€Å"The Secret of Childhood: Normalization and Deviations. † Lecture given on the AMI 3-6 course Nakhon Pathon, Thailand. April 2006. Permission given to Michael Olaf Company for reprinting. â€Å"Classroom Guide 6-12†, NAMC, Pages 202-205.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Analysis Of The Movie Boyz N The Hood - 1643 Words

Boyz N the Hood draws on many topics we talk about in class. Most of the kids in the movie were from broken homes (only one biological parent present) and lived in poor living conditions. Even though that was the case some of the kids prospered more than the others and were able to not get involved in gangs, drugs, or violence despite being in a poor environment where they were forced to live. In addition, some was able to continue their education and eventually get out of the environment, but some could not make it out and died in the poor environment. This movie is a great illustration of juvenile delinquency because it shows how living in a broken home, in a poor environment shapes young boys. In the paragraphs below, I will be showing†¦show more content†¦Delinquent behavior is more likely to happen if it is frequently reinforced and infrequently punished, results in large amounts of reinforcement and little punishment or is more likely to be reinforced than alternative behaviors. Tre in the beginning of the movie was influenced by violence right outside of his house, the people beat up someone while they were gambling. Things like this he learned and he solved his problems by fighting. Since his dad was the disciplinary parent, Tre could learn how to become discipline and be different than the other people in his neighborhood. Tre’s dad was the positive reinforcement, which shaped Tre to become successful and get out of the poor neighborhood. Tre’s dad had him do chores in the house and rake the leaves, before going out with his friends teaching him to do his responsibilities before anything else. Making him have a curfew and a bed time decreases the likelihood of being delinquent because he cannot stay out past a certain time. His dad believed that if he discipline Tre, then he would not end up dead or on the streets like some of his friends. Even though he was influenced mostly by his dad, he did have negative influences. 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