Thursday, October 31, 2019

The Taliban Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

The Taliban - Research Paper Example Social scientists and organizations are conducting studies in order to develop â€Å"more concrete data†¦that lead some people to terrorism –and use those insights to develop ways to thwart it† (Tori DeAngelis, 2009). The Chinese philosopher Sun Tzu aptly puts it: â€Å"If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a hundred battles. If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every vic ­tory gained you will also suffer a defeat (The Art of War, 6 BC).† The Taliban The Taliban emerged in the 1990s as a predominantly Pashtun movement in northern Pakistan. The group became prominent in 1994 in Afghanistan and was then recognized by the United Arab Emirates, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia. It gained notoriety after the 9/11 attacks in the United States of America in 2001 and was soon removed from power in Afghanistan by a US-led coalition. The group advocated a hard line enforcement of Islamic Law (BBC News Asia, 3 January 2012). Taliban ideology is based on Salafism which follows the egalitarian model, and Pashtunwali, which â€Å"arose from the madrassas during the Afghan-Soviet war.† The group â€Å"represented nobody but themselves and recognized no Islam except their own. (Afsar, Major Shahid, Samples, Major Chris and Wood, Major Thomas, 2008). Their religious ideology firmly enforces zealous compliance to their rule including banning all forms of entertainment, and banning of women’s education, including their seclusion. Harsh punishment for offenses like chopping of hands and public executions are their common methods of dispensing justice for perceived crime (EASO, 2012). The group has a hierarchical and layered structure with autonomous units under the control of the central leadership. It is headed by the Mullah Mohammad Omar who also controls the Shura (Leadership Council) with several organizing directors controlling provincial level activities under him. The next level of hierarchy is th e Provincial Chief with their respective Provincial Commision members, followed by the District level chief with District Deputies. On the fighter level, are the squad leaders with their respective Mujahiddens (EASO, 2012). Decision making is left to the top leaders who utilize authoritarian decision-making. The lower levels of the hierarchy on the other hand rely on consensus decision-making to maintain support from the populace (Afsar et. al, 2012). According to Jeffrey Dressler and Carl Forsberg, in their article Backgrounder The Quetta Shura Taliban in Southern Afghanistan: Organization, Operation and Shadow Governance (December 31, 2009) Large fighting units range in size from groups of twelve to thirty-plus fighters. They typically carry out†¦coordinated, multi-directional ambushes or raids in Taliban-controlled territory. Suicide bombers are†¦foreign†¦(as) their deaths will not be mourned by local families, potentially eroding public support for†¦Suicide a ttackers are trained in Pakistan and sent into the south, to report to a specific commander to receive instructions. At the district level and below are resourced by local indigenous fighters. Low-level commanders and small-unit leaders (no less than five personnel) operate with a higher degree of autonomy. Smaller units are typically comprised of between eight and twelve men, responsible for planting improvised explosive devices (IEDs), conducting small-scale ambushes of coalition and Afghan patrols and checkpoints and

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Shopping consumerism researsh Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Shopping consumerism researsh - Essay Example It has popularly grown over recent years, mostly because customers find it easy and convenient to negotiate shops from the comfort of their home or office. One of the most persuading factors about online shopping, mainly during holiday seasons, is that it reduces the need for waiting in long lines or searching from store to store for an item. In shopping malls, traditional shoppers peruse through the displays and aisles to find what they want, sometimes finding products that they were not even seeking. Online shoppers tend to use search engines to find products or product categories. Online shopping will be increasingly based on the shop knowing more and more about the individual shopper. Therefore, we’re going to see the online shopping experience be based more and more on automatically displaying products that the shopper is known to like (Chuanlan 2007). It is easier to shop over the internet. I have tried it a lot of times, and I know why I say so. According to (Elmer 2012), consumer information, which in online shopping is in the internet, plays a vital role in diminishing the spheres of sales, production, and distribution. The internet offers a wider platform for sellers to market and advertise their products, and for consumers to view, select and purchase whatever they are interested in. The most fundamental aim of Internet shopping is to cause an improvement on the customer and vender services. It upholds the details of addition of new customers, product receipts, product deletion and updating, and customer payments. Internet shopping also stocks up details of invoices generated by consumers and their payments, including details of payment such as credit card. In online shopping, customers find a merchandise of interest by paying a visit to the retailer’s website directly or by performing a search among optional vendors with the use of a shopping search engine. Once a

Sunday, October 27, 2019


CASE STUDY DAILY CARE OF A TERM INFANT The purpose of this case study is to discuss an episode of Normal Midwifery, which in this instance, will relate to the Daily Care of a Term Infant. The case study will highlight the episode of care in detail, evaluate the management of the babys Physical care and the womans Educational, Psychosocial needs with relevant evidence based support. The anonymity of mother and baby will be maintained in accordance with NMC (2008) and ESC 1 (NMC, 2007) and will be referred to as the woman and the baby through out the Case Study. Consent was also requested from the woman for herself and baby to be included in the Case Study in line with ESC 1 (NMC, 2007). BACKGROUND The woman was a 28 year old who was parity 1+0, had a spontaneous vaginal delivery of a baby girl with only Entonox as pain relief and was now 2nd day postnatal. The baby girl weighed 3288 grams with no complications after delivery and had APGAR scores of 8 at 1 minutes and 9 at 5 minutes. The woman had 40 minutes uninterrupted skin-to-skin with the baby after birth and decided to artificially feed rather than breast feed, although benefits of breast feeding were explained to the woman. The Student Midwife first met the woman during her Labour the previous day and was present at the birth. As the Student Midwife was working a day shift with her Mentor, it was requested that the Student Midwife carry out the Daily Examination of the baby in line with KCND (NHSQIS, 2009), while the Mentor observed. The initial examination and assessment of the baby was done at birth by the Mentor as suggested by Demott, Bick, Norman (2006) and included assessing the newborns physiological adaptation to extra-uterine life, colour, tone, breathing and heart rate according to Resuscitation Council (2006). The purpose of the Daily Examination there after is to monitor the progress of the baby and for early detection of deviation from the normal established at Initial Examination. These findings were documented in SWMR Baby Post Natal notes in line with NMC (2008) and KCND (NHSQIS, 2009). The Student Midwife before entering the womans room to commence examination familiarised herself with the womans Medical case / SWMR notes and babys SWMR notes, to review the medical history including: family history, maternal, antenatal and perinatal history, fetal and neonatal history so as to be prepared to assist with any concerns the woman may have regarding Physical, Educational or Social needs as recommended by KCND (NHSQIS, 2009). PHYSICAL The Student Midwife greeted the woman on entering the room and enquired how the woman was feeling. It was established that the woman was pain free and feeling fairly rested after labour the previous day. The Student Midwife then asked how the woman had found the baby overnight, regarding specifically feeding, sleeping pattern, passing urine meconium. The woman confirmed that the baby had been feeding approximately every 3 4 hours taking 30 mls each time, between feeds the baby was reported to have been settled and sleeping. It was also reported that the baby had been having wet nappies and one episode of a large amount of meconium being passed. It was important to establish that meconium had been passed within the first 24 hours as failure to do so may have indicated a gastrointestinal problem including Hirshsprungs disease. The woman was reassured that the passing of urine and meconium was important as this ensures that the renal and gastrointestinal systems are functioning normal ly. The information given was recorded in the babys SWMR notes following NMC (2008). It was then explained to the woman that the Student Midwife was going to examine the baby from head to toe, this would involve the baby being completely undressed at some point during the examination and that it would be carried out in front of her. Any findings would be discussed with her at the time and any concerns that she may have would be answered. Consent was then sought from the woman in line with NMC (2008) for the examination to be carried out, as the baby could not give consent, which was duly given. As it is important that the baby does not become cold due to the inefficiency of regulating temperature due to immaturity of the hypothalamus as suggested by Farrell and Sittlington in Fraser and Cooper (2009), the Student Midwife ensured that all windows and doors were closed to exclude any draught before commencing the Daily Examination of the baby. Also the Student Midwife washed her hands and applied latex free gloves to protect herself from any of the babys bodily fluids and to protect the baby who is at risk of infection as suggested by Johnson and Taylor (2006). Whilst undressing the baby the Student Midwife was mindful to show respect to the baby by gentle handling and lack of excessive noise as suggested by Carbjal and Coudered (2003). Safety of the baby was also considered and the Student Midwife ensured that the cot was stable and in view of the mother prior to commencing the examination. The babys identity was confirmed by checking details on both identity bands on the baby with the mother and the mothers identity was also confirmed by checking her identity band in line with the Newborn and Infant Physical Examination (NIPE) Standards and Competencies (NHS, 2008). A methodical examination was commenced by the Student Midwife which follows. All findings were discussed with the woman and documented in the babys SWMR notes as recommended by NMC (2007) who state that midwives must adhere to the guidelines for records and record keeping as a legal requirement. DAILY EXAMINATION Temperature Before removing the babys clothes, the Student Midwife took the babys temperature from the axilla site using an electronic thermometer whilst the baby lay in the cot. The reading was 36.8ËÅ ¡C which was within the normal range for an axilla reading (36.5 37.3ËÅ ¡C) as described by Bain in Fraser and Cooper (2009). Reassurance was given to the mother when she asked if the baby was warm enough that the reading was normal. The Student Midwife also offered the information of how the woman could check to see if the baby was too warm or cold by feeling under the babys clothes just below the neck and at the top of the babys back. Also a good indication was if the woman had two layers on, then generally the baby would require the same amount of layers. It was also advised that the baby would not require to wear a hat indoors if the room is at a comfortable temperature of between 18 21ËÅ ¡C but would require it outdoors due to cool air. General Appearance The Student Midwife removed the babys clothes, leaving only the nappy on which would be removed later in the examination, to observe the general appearance of the baby. The babys skin was noted to be pink all over showing no signs of central cyanosis, although hands and feet still showed slight signs of peripheral cyanosis which is normal during the first 24 48 hours according to Farrell and Sittlington in Fraser and Cooper (2009). This was explained to the mother so no undue worry was caused due to the blue tinge of the hands and feet. Also there was no sign of jaundice which is common after 48 hours from birth as all newborns have a transient rise in serum bilirubin which usually settles after 10 12 days post natal. The woman was advised to watch for any colour change of the babys skin from pink to yellow tinge or for the white of the eye (sclera) to be tinged with yellow. It was explained that this is a normal occurrence as suggested by Johnston, Flood, Spinks (2003) and as long as the baby had a good urine output, was awake regularly and fed well then there would be no cause for concern. However if the baby develops jaundice which last longer than expected, has excessive sleeping patterns, continually passes pale stools and dark urine, then the woman should get immediate attention for the baby as this is abnormal for a formula fed baby. The babys breathing was observed whilst lying in the cot and was noted to be within the normal range of 40 60 breaths/minute with the chest and abdomen rising and falling, showing no signs of distress. Being awake, alert and active the baby was seen to be moving all limbs as expected with good tone. Head The babys head was gently examined by the Student Midwife. This was done by gently running the finger tips across the babys head to feel along the suture lines and fontanelles. The Student Midwife when doing this was determining if any moulding, caput succedaneum or cephal haematoma had occurred during passage down the birth canal or from pressure from the cervical os. Slight moulding was detected and this was explained to the woman that this was normal and was caused by the bones in the skull overlapping during delivery and will resolve itself within a couple of days. The anterior fontanelle was then gently felt and found to be level. This indicated that there was no intracranial pressure which would cause it to rise or dehydration which would cause it to be depressed. It was explained that it is common to notice pulsating at the anterior fontanelle which is no cause of concern and that this soft spot closes over by the time the baby was 18 months old as confirmed by Wylie (2005). Eyes Both eyes were checked and found to be clear of any discharge. The Student Midwife suggested to the woman that if the eyes were to become sticky, which is common due to blocked tear ducts and can be seen as a crust on the eyelid, the eyes should be cleaned. To do this the woman should use cooled boiled water and cotton wool balls. Each eye should be cleaned from the inner eye outwards only using the cotton wool ball once then discarding. Each eye should be cleaned separately to avoid cross infection. Mouth Mouth was inspected by opening the mouth by gently pressing a finger against the angle of the jaw at the chin. This enabled the Student Midwife to look inside to assess the tongue, gums and palate. The Student Midwife did not insert small finger into mouth to check for a cleft palate or suck reflex as this had been established at Initial Examination of the newborn and no abnormalities had been detected. The mouth was seen to be moist and clear of any white plaques which may have suggested oral thrush as stated by Bain in Fraser and Cooper (2009). Skin Closer inspection was then done by the Student Midwife of the babys skin, looking in particular for any rashes, spots, bruising or infection. The babys nappy was removed and buttocks examined to ensure skin was intact. All appeared normal with no excoriation identified. The Student Midwife advised the woman that information on minor disorders would be given to her at the end of the examination as the Student Midwife was conscious of the babys temperature being maintained. Umbilicus Cord The umbilicus cord and clamp were inspected for signs of infection and separation. Nothing unusual was detected. The baby was redressed as quickly as possible to maintain body temperature and given to the woman to settle. Information was given to the woman on daily cord care which included that the umbilicus should be cleaned with warm tap water and patted dry which has been shown to aid separation as stated by Trotter (2003). This should be done daily and at a nappy change if required. It was explained to the woman that hand washing is essential before and after cord care as suggested by Farrell and Sittlington in Fraser and Cooper (2009) as the cord is a potential site for infection and Straphylococcus aureus is commonly found here as confirmed by Newell, Miller, Mogan et al (1997). When the woman asked when the clamp would be removed, it was confirmed that this may be done on the third or fourth day when the cord has dried out as suggested by World Health Organisation (WHO) (1999). The Student Midwife confirmed that the Daily Examination of the baby was complete and that she would now give the woman further information on minor disorders, safe baby care practice in particular Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and address any other concerns that the woman may have. EDUCATIONAL NEEDS Through out the examination the Student Midwife gave the woman information on day-to-day care and signs of illness. As previously mentioned further discussion took place with the woman regarding Minor disorders and safety issues, which is in line with NHS QIS (2004) who suggest that ay assessment or examination at birth or later should be seen as an opportunity for parental education or health promotion. This included the following ailments and explanation given to the woman: Skin Rashes Erythema toxicum. A red blotchy rash with white pinhead papules which is common during the first 7 days post natal and will disappear on its own. Miliaria. A sweat rash which occurs in babies who become too warm. It appears as clear papules on face, scalp, chest and areas where clothes rub due to unopened sweat glands. The baby should have excess clothing removed and placed in a cooler environment. The papules will disappear on their own. Milia. White or yellow papules commonly seen on cheeks, nose and forehead. Will disappear on their own. Sore buttocks/Nappy rash. The skin beneath the nappy area becomes red and excoriated due to either infrequent nappy changing, frequent loose stools or hot weather. By exposing the cleaned skin to a warm dry atmosphere aids the excoriated skin to heal. Care in using commercial barrier creams must be noted as they can prevent the one-way design of disposable nappies, blocking the perforations in the linings resulting in the urine and stools being next to the babys skin longer. Breast Engorgement of the Baby This can occur in both female and male babies around the 3rd day post natal. The breasts appear to have a lump under the nipple which is caused by the drop in oestrogen levels in the baby after birth which stimulates the breast to produce milk. No treatment is required and will rectify itself. It is important that mothers do not squeeze the breast as this may result in infection. Pseudo-menstruation It is common to notice a clear discharge or blood-stained vaginal discharge from baby girls during the withdrawal of the mothers hormone oestrogen after the birth. The mother was reassured that this is a normal physiological process which does not require treatment, although can be alarming if not aware of it. Safe Baby Care Practices The importance of reducing the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is done by ensuring the baby sleeps in a cot in the parents room for the first 6 months. The baby should always be put on their back to sleep, with their feet to the foot of the cot. They should be lightly covered with the room at a normal temperature, not too hot. Bed sharing is not recommended especially after consuming alcohol, drugs or after smoking. The baby should be in a smoke-free atmosphere. These recommendations are formed by the Department of Health (1996). Following the birth of the baby the role of the Midwife is to observe and monitor the health of the mother and he newborn, offering information and support in breastfeeding, which is not applicable in this instance, parenting skills and signs of morbidity according to Merchant (2006). This involved effective communication with the woman through out the examination to ensure that the woman conveyed her concerns, maintained control over her decision making with regards to the baby, assisted her in making informed choices and reduced her anxiety levels and emotional distress as suggested by Raynor (2006). In order that the womans physical and emotional status was commensurate with effective communication, the Student Midwife had to assess the womans emotional state when receiving information, which was done by asking how the woman was feeling before commencing the babys Daily Examination. The womans state could have been effected by pain, tiredness, hormonal changes or if the baby was c rying/distressed due to being hungry or requiring changing. Therefore the timing of conducting the Examination was essential to ensure that the woman retained the majority of the information given to her without being distracted due to other factors. In this instance the woman was receptive to the information given, which would assist her in the daily care of her baby, as according to McCourt in Page and McCandlish (2006) the transition to parenthood is a time when adults are responsive to information and will look for it actively. As the Midwife becomes familiar with the appearance and behaviour of a normal term newborn, the recognition of signs and signals caused by morbidity are easily communicated to the mother to assist her in recognising when there are any deviations from the normal with her baby. The importance of this is in preparing the mother for discharge home as the length of time spent in hospital is decreasing according to Bain in Fraser and Cooper (2009). As well as educating the woman with clinical skills (e.g. daily care of the baby, recognising signs of illness) the Midwifes role also encapsulates being able to provide relevant information / advice on general health promotion, social support and mental health. PSYCHOSOCIAL NEEDS As the woman was a first time mother it was important to establish that the woman had adequate support in caring for herself and the baby. This was established by the Student Midwife by familiarising herself with the woman and babys SWMR and Case notes which would highlight any social issues that may have needed addressing as the social circumstances in which a woman lives and a newborn brought into play a major part in their health and well being according to Raynor (2006). In this instance the woman was in a stable relationship with no reported Domestic Abuse, was not in temporary housing, had no social work involvement, no mental health issues and had good family support as routinely asked during Booking appointment and recorded in SWMR notes. It was important for the Student Midwife to spend time with the woman and baby in quiet surroundings, free from interruption which offered privacy and allowed the communication of sensitive and confidential information to be shared between the woman and the Student Midwife following NIPE Standards and Competencies (NHS, 2008). This gave the Student Midwife the opportunity to assess the womans psychosocial well-being by asking how she was coping (defined as coming to terms with a situation according to Lazarus (1966)) so far with the baby / becoming a mother and also to ascertain the womans expectations of becoming a mother. It is known that in adjusting to motherhood, the woman can feel insecure and loses confidence in her own abilities in the early postnatal period, especially on the lead up to and after discharge as confirmed by Ward and Mitchell (2004). Factors which can influence this are the womans personality, previous learning, quality/quantity of support available and past ex periences of coping. The woman, in this instance stated that although she knew it would take some time to adjust to lack of sleep and was slightly anxious about going home, she had good support from her partner, mother and friends; she had no immediate concerns about caring for the baby. CONCLUSION In conclusion it is the Student Midwifes opinion that the Daily Examination of the Term Infant was carried out following KCND (NHS, 2009) guidelines and that the NIPE Standards and Competencies (NHS, 2008) were adhered to. The baby was examined in a safe and comfortable environment, was shown respect and care from the Student Midwife whilst performing Daily Examination and full explanation was given to the woman as to what was being checked and looked for. The Student Midwife ensured that the woman had the opportunity to ask questions or offer sensitive information through out this encounter by providing privacy and confidentiality in line with NMC (2008) and ESC (NHS, 2009). All findings and discussion were documented in mother and baby SWMR notes accordingly in line with NMC (2007) The role of the Midwife in Educational and Psychosocial needs is to give the woman, relevant health advice for the baby and themselves, reassurance and permission to say how they feel. This follows a health orientated and woman centred model of care, which recommends that the role of the Midwife is to encourage the womans self confidence, ability to take control and self esteem as suggested by Bates in Stewart (2004). In a recent study it was concluded that healthy, low risk women wanted attentive, proactive, professional support from the Midwife during the transition to motherhood according to Seefat-van Teeffelen, Nieuwenhuijze, Korstjens (2009) which the Student Midwife believes was given during this Daily Examination of a Term Infant.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Women as a Minority Group Essay -- essays research papers

Women as a Minority Group   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Women have been discriminated against since the beginning of time, as early as the first people, Adam and Eve. Eve was called the evil one, who ate fruit from the tree of knowledge. Once she had the knowledge to know right from wrong, she chose to do wrong and give the fruit to Adam. Examples like these can be shown all over history books, in stories, tales and legends across the entire world. Women have been subordinate to men in virtually all societies throughout history.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The ideology that one sex is superior to the other is called sexism. The presumption of male sexism led to patterns of prejudice and discrimination against women. These prejudices and discriminations have led to many beliefs or ideas of why women are inferior to men. They range from brain size to sexual differences, including personalities based on genitalia. Cross-cultural studies demonstrate how the socialization process and societal expectations of men and women produce variances in sex-role norms and behavior. As the realization of women as an exploited group increases, the similarity of their position to that of racial and ethnic groups becomes more apparent. Women are born into their sexual identity and are easily distinguished by physical and cultural characteristics. In addition, women now identify that they are all sufferers of an ideology (sexism) that tries to justify their inferior treatment. In all societies around the world, women are treated as if they are a minority group, just like any racial or ethnic group that is out of the norm. The justification for considering women as a minority group and the existence of sexism becomes clear through the examination of social indicators, including education, employment, and income.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Education was sex segregated for hundreds of years. Men and women went to different schools or were physically and academically separated into â€Å"coeducational† schools. Males and females had separate classrooms, separate entrances, separate academic subjects, and separate expectations. Women were only taught the social graces and morals, and teaching women academic subjects was considered a waste of time. Even after these prejudices were overcome, the education system still maintained sexism in both obvious and subtle ways. Books rein... ...nses for maternity and family medical leaves. If a woman chooses motherhood, then she must lower her occupational goals and expectations. A woman with children will fall behind a childless woman in earnings, as the childless woman goes up the corporate ladder faster. Women will then risk career advancement by having children. Also, a working mother must not only juggle a family and a career, but she must find child-care as well. Child care costs are the major reason why most women end up just quitting their jobs. The majority of a working mother’s salary goes directly to the child care provider. If women were paid equal to men, more families may be able to pay for child care expenses and working mothers could continue to work and get ahead. Women have been treated unequally since the beginning of time. Just recently have things began to change for the better for women and the future of our society. The increase in women’s equality rights will take time, but some day women and men will be treated equally. This cannot happen until each of us is able to look at a person and just see another individual, not a male or a female, white or black, rich or poor†¦ a person as just a person.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Urban Problems and the Authors Who Revealed Them to Us

Around the 18th century, the industrial revolution began. This is when immigrants came and started to work in factories, not-so-good conditions. They worked in sorrowful rooms called sweatshops. There are some authors who were alive at the time and decided to investigate upon it. Others who were not alive at the time and they still were interested and were destined to research it. These authors were cordial to inform us the problems and vexations during that era. In this essay, I will be conducting, comparing and contrasting two books; ‘The jungle by Upton Sinclair†.And ‘How the other half lives† by Jacob Riis. How the Other Half Lives Imagine living in a dark, unlit tenement which is windowless and about 10 feet square. Photographers would come; a flash explodes, enlightening their impoverishment. Although the dimness of the room, a document of urban poverty is made. That is the way; Jacob Riis took pictures in lower Manhattan. This pioneering work of photojo urnalism by Jacob Riis focused on the plight of the poor in the Lower East Side, and greatly influenced future â€Å"muckraking† journalism.Riis mostly attributed the plight of the poor to environmental conditions, but he also divided the poor into two categories: deserving of assistance (mostly women and children) and undeserving (mostly the unemployed and intractably criminal). He wrote with prejudice about Jews, Italians, and Irish, and he stopped short of calling for government intervention. Still, the catalyst of his work was a genuine sympathy for his subjects, and his work shocked many New Yorkers.The Jungle Upton Sinclair was a desperately poor, young socialist hoping to remake the world when he settled down in a tarpaper shack in Princeton Township and penned his Great American Novel. Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle to expose the appalling working conditions in the meat-packing industry. His description of diseased, rotten, and contaminated meat shocked the public an d led to new federal food safety laws. Before the turn of the 20th century, a major reform movement had emerged in the United States.Known as progressives, the  reformers were reacting to problems caused by the rapid growth of factories and cities. Progressives at first concentrated on improving the lives of those living in slums and in getting rid of corruption in government. By the beginning of the new century, progressives had started to attack huge corporations like Standard Oil, U. S. Steel, and the Amour meat-packing company for their unjust practices. The progressives revealed how these companies eliminated competition, set high prices, and treated workers as â€Å"wage slaves. â€Å"

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Galileo Galilei Essay

Galileo Galilei is an Italian astronomer, physicist, philosopher, and mathematician. He ranks with Archimedes, Newton, and Einstein as one of the greatest scientists of all time. His discoveries, made with the crudest of equipment, were brilliant examples of scientific deduction. Galileo’s studies of natural laws laid the groundwork for the experimental scientists who followed him. Galileo was born at Pisa, the son of a musician who planned a medical career for him. He began studying medicine at the University of Pisa. According to legend, Galileo made his first major discovery at this time. He is said to have used his pulse to time the swinging of a suspended lamp in a cathedral; he found that, no matter how far the lamp swung, the timing has always the same (Drake, 2002). In later life Galileo established the fact that a free-swinging object, or pendulum, moves in uniform time intervals. Pendulum clocks are a common application of this principle. Thesis Statement: This paper scrutinizes the life and contributions of Galileo Galilei. II. Discussion Galileo constructed the first telescope used for astronomical observations; the observations he made supported Copernicus’ theory that the sun is the center of the solar system. In physics, Galileo discovered the principles of motion followed by swinging pendulums, falling bodies, and flying projectiles. Galileo used his heartbeat to time the period of a pendulum. He realized that a pendulum could be used as a standard of time for a clock (Rose 2004). Pendulum clocks are still sold today, more than three hundred years after their invention. Moreover, changing from the study of medicine to that mathematics and natural science, Galileo conducted experiments on gravity that brought him to public attention. In 1589, he became a lecturer on mathematics at the University of Pisa, and began his studies of falling bodies. According to legend, as mentioned earlier, he dropped objects from the Leaning Tower of Pisa to prove his theory that bodies fall at the same speed and with the same acceleration regardless of their weight and size. He also demonstrated that projectiles follow a parabolic path. These discoveries were contrary to the teachings of the ancient Greek scientist and philosopher Aristotle, many of whose ideas had for centuries been accepted without question. Galileo aroused such opposition that in 1951 he was forced to resign from the university (Rose 2004). The next year Galileo obtained a professorship in mathematics at the University of Padua, where he remained for 18 years. This was a period of successful research, acclaim, and prosperity for Galileo. In 1609, Galileo received news of the invention, in Flanders, of a device that made a distant objects appear larger. He immediately set out to build such a device for himself. The final result was a 32-power refracting telescope, with which he made series of major discoveries (Poupard 2005). He found by observation that the moon shone only from reflected light; that the Milky Way was formed of a multitude of stars; and that the planet Jupiter was circled by several moons. His discoveries caused great excitement among astronomers; he was besieged with orders for telescopes. In 1610, Galileo left Padua for Florence to become official mathematician and philosopher to Grand Duke Cosimo II de’ Medici. By the end of the year his telescopic discoveries included the rings of Saturn, the phases of Venus, and sun spots. His observations clearly confirmed the theory of the Polish astronomer Copernicus that the earth and planets revolved around the sun. The church, however, had accepted as conforming the Bible the earlier idea of the planets and sun revolving around the stationary earth. When Galileo visited Rome in 1611 he was given a welcome by Church officials befitting one of the greatest astronomers of all time, as he was then acknowledged to be. This gave him the courage to announce his support of the Copernican theory of the solar system. Controversy flared. Although warned by the Church to avoid religious interpretation of his theory, Galileo attempted to prove it by quoting the Bible. He was told by the Church in 1616 to abandon the Copernican theory because it contradicted the Bible. In 1632, however, he published Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World, in which he revived his argument in favor of the Copernican system. Galileo was then summoned to appear before the Inquisition and forced to renounce the view that the earth moves around the sun (Poupard, 2005). Although sentenced to imprisonment, he was permitted to retire to his home, where he continued his studies. III. Conclusion As a conclusion, Galileo Galilei made great contributions to our society through his invention and discoveries. His works are highly acclaimed and made significant impact in the fields of mathematics, physics, astronomy, and in sciences. Reference: Drake, Stillman (2003). Cause, Experiment, and Science: a Galilean Dialogue (University of Chicago) Poupard, Paul (2005. Galileo at work: Toward a Resolution of 350 Years of Debate, 1633-1983 (Duquesne University). Rose, Sidney (2004). Galileo and the Magic Numbers (Little, Brown).